Altimmune last month launched a 180-person trial of its intranasal vaccine, called AdCOVID, to test how safe the vaccine is, what side effects it prompts, and what levels of antibodies and T-cells it produces. Participants range in age from 18 to 55. The company expects to have data in the second quarter of this year.
Vaccines injected into the arm muscle, however, are most common. These prompt your immune system to start producing T-cells that remember the pathogen, should it ever return, and antibodies that fight off the virus across your body — what’s known as systemic immunity.
But those antibodies don’t always flood into the mucus-covered surfaces of the nose and throat (where a respiratory virus likes to hang out) in large enough numbers to stop the virus from replicating there.
A nasal spray can prompt your immune system to create antibodies known as immunoglobulin A locally in your mucosal orifices, said Dr. Paul Goepfert, the director of the Alabama Vaccine Research Clinic.
Jesus: Hey, Dad? God: Yes, Son? Jesus: Western civilization followed me home. Can I keep it? God: Certainly not! And put it down this minute--you don't know where it's been! Tom Robbins in Another Roadside Attraction